Kamis, 15 Oktober 2009

Integrated Beach Environmental Monitoring Program ( IBEMP) in Bali : The Land Base Pollution Mitigation Programme in supporting Bali Sustainable D

Integrated Beach Environmental Monitoring Program ( IBEMP) in Bali : The Land Base Pollution Mitigation Programme in supporting Bali Sustainable Development

K.G. Dharma Putra

Chairman, Center for Environmental Studies Faculty of Science Udayana University

Kampus Bukit Jimbaran Bali Indonesia

E-mail : kgdharmap@telkom.net

ABSTRACT

Integrated Beach Environmental Monitoring Program ( IBEMP) in Bali Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) Demonstration Site is done to monitored parameter in sea water quality and beach condition and link the observed patterns to specific integrated coastal management actions. It involves repeated sampling over time and is different from environmental sampling which may be short term, aimed at collecting specific information on the concentration, distribution, and variability of chemical contaminants in certain media. It requires the integration of information from several concurrent sampling efforts and requires periodic analysis of monitoring program results so that sampling may be modified as necessary to maximize program effectiveness.

The purpose of this monitoring component is to determine the levels of selected environmental quality indicators at selected beaches under natural conditions. For the pilot test as a starting action on Bali IBEMP at year 2005 was conducted at Sanur Beach, Serangan Beach, Benoa Harbour Beach, Tanjung Benoa Beach and Nusa Dua Beach and continously done by local government environmnetal agency on 2006, 2007 and beyond. Total 20 site location was taken during the demonstration of the pilot test. The parameter monitored such as total and fecal coli form, fecal streptococcus; temperature, oil layer (OL), floating material (FM), turbidity, salinity, total dissolve solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS) , pH, Dissolve Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), nitrite, and nitrate, ammonia, and phosphate. Others parameters regarding environmental education, information and management facilities also observe as well as the solid waste, wastewater, and safety and services facilities.

The result of the program give evidence that the marine pollution mostly come from land base pollution and at some beach, the environmental quality need to improve. At most of the site are polluted by the oil layer, floating material, nitrogenous, and phosphate. Most of the water also contain bacterial pathogen. Among the entire site monitored, Nusa Dua beach become the best beach in related with the seawater quality, the facility for public activities, and the beach management and information facilities. While Benoa Harbour beach become the highly polluted area, and need to improve their environment. The positive aspect of the program is the involvement of local institution at province and regency level such as government environmental agency,public works agency, and other planning agency from the initial plan until the implementation. The constraints of the program mostly come from the limit of resource both human and equipment, while the most difficult factor is the lack of networking culture among the government agencies at province and regency level at sharing their available budget for monitoring program.

It was very important to mention that during the pilot test, the task team was involved from the planning activities of the program. After the key parameter was measured and compiled, then the data will support Bali environmental agency database for future environmnetal monitoring programme. The up date data will increase the availability of data base at Bali Provincial Government. In the future program, the database will be part of IBEMP program, as the monitoring program will be integrated in a fully international network activities to support the Bali sustainable development.

Keywords: Integrated Coastal Management (ICM), Integrated Beach Environmental Monitoring Program ( IBEMP) , Bali Sustainable Development


Integrated Beach Environmental Monitoring Program ( IBEMP) in Bali : The Land Base Pollution Mitigation Programme in supporting Bali Sustainable Development

K.G. Dharma Putra

Chairman , Center for Environmental Studies Faculty of Science Udayana University

Kampus Bukit Jimbaran Bali Indonesia

E-mail : kgdharmap@telkom.net

1.Background

Bali Island is a famous tourist destination in Indonesia and the southeastern region is the center of tourism development especially for coastal and marine tourism. In order to sustain the tourism industry and associated economic activities, the natural environment and resources of Bali need to be protected and conserved. The initial risk assessment (IRA) of the southeastern coast of Bali has shown decline with regard to:

1) fisheries and shellfisheries and other natural resources and habitats;

2) human health risk associated with bathing in coastal waters at specific areas due to coli form contamination; and

3) Ecological risks from nutrients, organic matter, suspended solids and certain heavy metals at particular locations.

The data used in the IRA came from separate monitoring activities of local and national government agencies and various development projects as well as research studies. While duplication of some efforts was observed, data gaps were also noted as well as uncertainties with regard to data comparability and spatial and temporal cover of data. Thus, in addition to management recommendations to address the identified concerns, the results of the risk assessment highlighted the need for a:

1) cost-effective and sustainable environmental monitoring program that can provide reliable information to support environmental management and decision-making;

2) mechanism to facilitate information-sharing and the use of the monitoring information in environmental management; and

3) coordination and cooperation among various institutions involved in environmental monitoring.

Since Bali is popular for coastal and marine tourism, a monitoring program in support of beach improvement and management is imperative in order to ensure the safety of beach users and the environmental and economic sustainability of tourism activities. Taking the monitoring effort further to ensure that results are used for management actions, an integrated beach environmental monitoring program (IBEMP), which will aim to take care of beach environment, would be a positive step forward. This program will be comprehensive and will include monitoring and management of water quality, environmental management and beach safety, and will be implemented jointly by the government, private sector and civil society. Looking further ahead, such program could potentially lead to a recognition/certification system for beaches that pass certain criteria with regard to water quality and other areas of environmental management, which would improve tourism, increase local employment and income, and promote environmental protection.

Figure 1. Schematic diagram for IBEMP

Such system, however, would need to be built slowly but steadily over the years through specific actions, starting with a systematic determination of water quality in selected beaches and evaluation of technical and human resources, infrastructure, policy, and institutional capacity and needs to implement a comprehensive beach management program. By aiming to conduct such evaluation, the IBEIMP project will be contributing greatly to the sustainable development of tourism in Bali. Integrated Beach Environmental Monitoring refers to a comprehensive method to assess the status of the beach environment on a regular basis to protect these sites against potential damage from human-related activities. Integration not only pertains to the technical aspect of implementation but is also focused on achieving cooperation across sectors.

2 Goals and Objectives of IBEMP

The goal of environmental monitoring is to evaluate trends in monitored variables and to link the observed patterns to specific management actions. It involves repeated sampling over time and is different from environmental sampling which may be short term, aimed at collecting specific information on the concentration, distribution, and variability of chemical contaminants in certain media. It requires the integration of information from several concurrent sampling efforts and requires periodic analysis of monitoring program results so that sampling may be modified as necessary to maximize program effectiveness.

The IBEMP aims to contribute to sustainable tourism development in Bali Coastal region by strengthening the local capacity for beach environmental quality management. Specifically, the IBEMP is directed to:

(1) Beach water quality monitoring

(2) Assessment of beach environmental and safety management measures

(3) Capacity building in the areas of: (1) Laboratory analysis and maintenance; (2)Regular field sampling and analysis;(3) Information Campaigns; (4) Assessment of beach environmental and safety management measures

These components will be implemented in three phases:

(1) Pilot Monitoring will be conducted for three months to test the initial design of beach monitoring and to test whether the framework for monitoring can be implemented in the long-term;

(2) Long-term Monitoring will be designed immediately after the pilot monitoring has been conducted to ensure that monitoring process will be done systematically over a period of time.

(3) Media campaign will be the socialization of the result of IBEMP for public debate in promotes law enforcement and beach accreditation.

The long-term goal of the IBEMP is to contribute to sustainable tourism development in Bali by strengthening the local capacity for beach environmental quality management. Specifically, the IBEMP aims to: (1) Determine the environmental quality of bathing beaches; and (2) Develop measures to enhance overall quality of beach environment.

3. Monitoring Methodology

3.1 Key factors

The goal of environmental monitoring is to evaluate trends in monitored variables and to link the observed patterns to specific management actions. It involves repeated sampling over time and is different from environmental sampling which may be short term, aimed at collecting specific information on the concentration, distribution, and variability of chemical contaminants in certain media. It requires the integration of information from several concurrent sampling efforts and requires periodic analysis of monitoring program results so that sampling may be modified as necessary to maximize program effectiveness.

Key factors to be considered in developing a monitoring program include:

(1) Background information. It is extremely necessary to carefully review all available background information before designing the monitoring program in order to have proper guidance in formulating the goals and objectives of the program and coming up with an optimal and cost-effective design that would address these goals and objectives. Such information would include environmental conditions and natural and human factors that may influence the beach environment. Bali IBEMP will develop an integrated environmental monitoring program that provides reliable information to support marine and coastal environmental management for the sustainable development in coastal areas. During the program, all information produced by the provincial and regency government such as spatial plan regulation, tourism development plan, investment plan, and environmental profile were reviewed for the basic information before the IBEMP. The site location for pilot test environmental monitoring program is the tourism area for Sanur, Tanjung Benoa and Nusa Dua beach while Serangan Island and Benoa Harbour is area prepare to support tourism activities. Benoa harbour also provides international services in marine and cargo transportation.

(2) Program Objectives: The program objectives should support the goal of contributing to sustainable tourism development in Bali by strengthening the local capacity for beach environmental quality management. Thus the objectives of the Bali IBEMP are to: (1) Determine the environmental quality of bathing beaches; (2) Develop measures to enhance over-all quality of beach environment; (3) Develop knowledge and skills of ICM implementers to conduct regular monitoring activities; and (4) Guide the formulation of sound management decisions to manage and protect the beach environment

(3) Water quality standards. The standard for the data of beach monitoring based on Governor Bali decree No 515 Year 2000 for Bali Environmental Quality Standard. Ideally, all the recommended parameters to be monitored in bathing water must comply with the national water quality standards in public areas for protection of public health. However, Governor Bali Decree for coastal water quality standards only mentions some parameter for marine tourism area.

(4) Availability of resources. Constraints with regard to both funding and staff can limit the design of the monitoring program with regard to what, where, when and how often monitoring activities can be conducted. Development of the monitoring program can thus be done in phases, initially adjusting to the available resources (e.g., by starting with a few selected beaches), with an aim to eventually expand the program (e.g., covering more beaches). Alternatively, public or private partners in implementing the program can be sought, with the aim of sharing/contributing resources to support the program.

(5) Inputs of other stakeholders. Stakeholders are important sources of information concerning what beach users want to know about beach water quality, what they want to see with regard to beach environmental and safety management, and how they prefer to receive this information. They could also be important sources of information concerning various sources of contamination.

In general the development of environmental monitoring program will develop, demonstrate, and promote the adoption of a cross-sectoral and sustainable integrated environmental monitoring plan for Bali, Indonesia in support of environmental management and decision-making. The project will then focus to strengthen the use of risk assessment as a tool for providing scientific input in policy making and decision taking processes regarding marine and coastal resources management at the local government level and to identify requirements for capacity building to implement the proposed environmental monitoring program.

3.2.Integrated Beach Environmental Monitoring Program (IBEMP)

The environmental monitoring protocol which address the goals and objectives of the program include:

(1) Monitoring plan that specifies what, where, when, and how often monitoring will be conducted and the decision criteria for interpreting monitoring results

(2) Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plan that specifies procedures to be followed at various steps of program implementation in order to ensure the integrity of collected data

(3) Data management system that can support storage, retrieval, organization, presentation and sharing of information

(4) Mechanism and tools for information dissemination to the public, environmental managers, and decision-makers

For initial pilot test for IBEMP the laboratory used was Environmental Laboratory at The Faculty of Science Udayana University, which widely used for the same activities for about five years in Bali.

3.3 Parameters

For the pilot test integrated beach environmental monitoring, the monitoring parameters are:

Table 1. Monitoring parameters

Microbiological

Total coli form, Fecal coli form, and fecal streptococcus

Physico-chemical

Temperature, turbidity, salinity, TSS,TDS, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), BOD,COD,nitrite, nitrate, phosphate

Visual observations

Oil layer, floating materials

For the initial data collection of the Pilot IBEMP, the nutrients ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3) , nitrite (NO2) and phosphate (PO4) also determined in the beach stations. Elevated levels of these nutrients may cause increased growth of algae which can adversely affect recreational water use. These parameters may also provide information regarding certain contamination sources (e.g., farm runoff or animal feeding). Inclusion of these parameters in the regular monitoring program and the frequency of monitoring will be determined based on the results of the pilot test.

3.4. Sampling Stations

The monitoring program aims to determine risks to public health that may potentially arise from using the beach areas. Major considerations applied in choosing monitoring stations were Sanur Beach, Tanjung Benoa Beach, and Nusa Dua Beach as a recreational areas frequently used by bathers and where density of bathers is highest; and Serangan Island Beach and Benoa Harbour Area as the site that close to potential sources of contaminant inputs to the beaches Samples collected where there is highest risk of public exposure to pathogens and contaminants in the sea water. Samples collected in areas most frequently used for swimming. Special consideration made for areas often used by children (knee deep, within the “swash zone” or the area of low waves near the shore) as these areas may coincide with the contaminated sites due to minimal flushing by waves. The monitoring frequency is twice a month in the morning and in the afternoon each sampling. Areas most commonly used for swimming was sampled on a regular basis. Densities of indicator organisms in recreational beach waters can vary greatly over time, which is why some intensive monitoring programs conduct sampling on a daily basis.

4. Result and Conclusion

4.1 Result

Bali is an island with an extensive water system where they have little or no purification of sewage or wastewater. The development of tourism industries, especially at south part of the island, give serious impact for the environments. The increasing population each year, need to provide new infrastructures, roads, settlement areas, and supporting facilities. All the development than give impact to the environments. The increasing uses of pesticide and fertilizers from irrigation of rice field, the wastewater from tourism area, the uses of water for golf course, and the pollution from transportation activities all goes to the beach from water surface flushing out. Than the quality of seawater around Bali beach decrease every year.

Table 2. Environmental Status of Seawater[i1]

No

Location

Above Bali Standard1, 3

Above National Standard2, 3

Site Location

Quality[i2]

1

Sanur Beach

OL (stn 1), FM (stn 1), nitrite (stns 1,2,3 & 5), ammonia (almost all stns), Total Coliform (all stns), fecal coliform (all stns), fecal streptococcus (stn 1)

OL (stn 1), FM (stn 1), nitrate (stns 1-3), ammonia (almost all stns), phosphate (stn 1), Total Coliform (stn 1) , fecal coliform (all stns), fecal streptococcus (stn 1)

One site (SSW1) (except as indicated)

Good

2

Serangan Island Beach

OL,FM,nitrite, ammonia, Total Coliform,fecal coliform,fecal streptococcus (stns 1&2), BOD (stns 3&4, 2nd to 6th sampling)

OL,FM, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, Total Coliform,fecal coliform,fecal streptococcus (stns 1&2), BOD (stns 3&4, 2nd to 6th sampling)

All sites ( 5)

Polluted

3

Benoa Harbour Beach

OL,FM, BOD, COD, nitrite, ammonia, Total Coliform,fecal coliform,fecal streptococcus, DO (stn 1; some sampling periods for other sites)

OL, FM, BOD, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, Total Coliform,fecal coliform,fecal streptococcus, DO (stn 1; some sampling periods for other sites)

All sites (4)

Polluted

4

Tanjung Benoa Beach

OL (stn 1),FM (stn 1), nitrite (all stns), BOD (stn 1), COD (stn 1), Total Coliform (all stns), fecal coliform (almost all stns), fecal streptococcus (stn 1; 1 sampling)

OL (stn 1), FM (stn 1), nitrate (all stns), phosphate (all stns), BOD (stn 1), Total Coliform (stn 1; 2nd & 3rd sampling), fecal coliform (almost all stns), fecal streptococcus (stn 1; 1 sampling)

One site (TBSW1) (except as indicated)

Good

5

Nusa Dua Beach

-ammonia (all stations), total coliform (all stations),

- phosphate (all stations)

Ammonia (all stations)

Nitrate (all stations; 3 sampling periods); total coliform (stn 1)

-All stations

Very Good

1 No Bali standards for nitrate and phosphate

2 No national standard for nitrite

3 Different Bali and national standards for total coliform

In order to understand the complexity of the seawater pollution in Bali, the assumption should asses the environmental management in Bali. Until year 2005, there are no integrated wastewater facilities in Bali. The garbage disposal site in every regency only use a limited, or on the other hand, without treatment facilities. Endemic illness have arrisen during the rainy season every year in Bali due to the contamination of ground water with pathogenic bacteria from flooded settling tanks or rivers. Discharges of untreated waste water constitutes now become high risk environmental problem in Bali. At the location of pilot test environmental monitoring program, in general, the quality of seawater are varies from site to site. Nusa Dua is the best area according to the quality of the beach, and seawater, while the Benoa harbour is the worst.

4. 2 Site Evaluation

4.2.1 Sanur Beach

One location at Sanur Beach are polluted by the oil layer and floating material at the site close to the estuary. The material mostly come from the river which also across the settlement area in the Denpasar city. The chemical parameter of the water are below the local and national standard, except for the nitrogenous compound and phosphate. Most of the water also contain bacterial pathogen, perhaps due to the lack facility of wastewater treatment plant. Sanur is tourist area. Hotel and restaurant produce large amounts of sewage water, wastewater, and solid waste that need to be disposed. However, close to the region, there are no domestic treatment plants for sewage or wastewater, and solid waste. Only the star hotel, such as Grand Bali Beach, Sanur Beach, and Bali Hyatt have a exclusive wastewater facilities. But according to the increase pollution across the seawater, its seem the facilities at the hotels do not work properly, or the hotels also pour their waste to the environments.

Other parameter such as dissolved oxygen was measured at 7.84 to 8.12 mg/L, which are close to the standard value. Dissolved oxygen is required for the respiration of aerobic microorganism as well as all other aerobic life forms. However, oxygen is only slightly soluble in water. Because the rate of biochemical reaction that use oxygen increase with increasing temperature, dissolved oxygen levels tend to be more critical in the dry season. The amount of oxygen dissolved in the water has a profound effect on the plants and animals living in it. The value was above 5 mg/L, which means that its quality is good for seawater, but still too low. Aerobic bacteria make use of oxygen dissolved in the water to achieve this equation.

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 à 6 H2O + 6 CO2

When the oxygen concentration is low, anaerobic bacteria can oxidize organic molecules without the use of oxygen, but the end products include compounds such as NH3 (ammonia), H2S (hydrogen sulphide), and CH4 (methane). The biological oxygen demand was also below the standard. [i3] The concentration of nitrogen as NH3-N and NO2-N is very important in understanding the quality of seawater around Sanur area. Although the NH3-N concentration was very low (range between 0.00 to 0.086 mg/L) but it should be zero according to the Environmental Regulation, which is also similar for N-NO2, which value ranges from 0. 000 to 0. 009 mg/L.

The chemistry of nitrogen is complex because it has several states and the fact that changes in valence can be brought about by living organisms. The nitrogen compound around Nusa Dua area mostly comes from fertilizer from hotel’s garden and from natural sources. The nitrates supplied in excess to the plants will be carried away by the water percolating through the soil because the soil does not have the ability to hold them. The ammonia (NH3-N) released by bacterial action which may be used by plants directly to produce plant protein. On the other hand, the nitrites are oxidized by the Nitrobacter group of nitrifying bacteria and frequently results in relatively high concentrations of nitrate in seawater. Nitrogen data are extremely important in connection with the algal growth in the water. To decrease the concentration of the nitrogen, it is oxidized in water, thereby affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration.

4.2.2 Serangan Island Beach[i4]

The entire site for Serangan Island beach are polluted by the oil layer and floating material. The material mostly come from garbage disposal site which very close to the island, and also from the river flow a close to the mangrove forest. Other parameter such as dissolved oxygen was measured above the standard values, give indication that the seawater are very limited oxygen sources. Dissolved oxygen is required for the respiration of aerobic microorganism as well as all other aerobic life forms. However, oxygen is only slightly soluble in water. Because the rate of biochemical reaction that use oxygen increase with increasing temperature, dissolved oxygen levels tend to be more critical in the dry season. The amount of oxygen dissolved in the water has a profound effect on the plants and animals living in it. [i5]

4.2.3 Benoa Harbour Region

All the site location at Benoa harbour are highly polluted area because most of the key parameter measured above the local and national standard.

4.2.4 Tanjung Benoa-Nusa Dua Beach

The quality of seawater at Tanjung Benoa-Nusa Dua region are polluted by the oil layer, floating material,coliform[i6] , nitrogenous and phosphate.

4.3 Conclusion

The pilot test for integrated beach environmental monitoring was successfully done with the vision for partnership between stakeholders in environmental management in Bali. Among the entire site monitored, Nusa Dua beach become the best beach in related with the seawater quality, the facility for public activities, and the beach management and information. While Benoa Harbour beach become the highly polluted area, and need to improve their environment. The positive aspect of the program is the involvement of local institution at province and regency level such as Bapedalda and public works agency from the initial plan until the implementation. The constraints of the program mostly come from the limit of resource both human and equipment, while the most difficult factor is the lack of networking culture among the government agencies at province and regency level at sharing their available budget for monitoring program.

It was recommended that the program to develop a integrated wastewater treatment plant and solid wastes treatment plant is a high priority in Bali, especially at South region due to the high concentration of pollution from land base wastes. The need of integrated program in data collection still the recommended program for all agencies with responsibility in environmental issue such as Bapedalda, public works, health,transportation, and tourism.

Acknowledgement

This programme was funded by GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme on Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia(PEMSEA)-Environmental Agency Bali Provincial Government.

References

Bapedalda Bali, 2001, Study on Comulative Environmnetl Impact (SOCEI), Final Report

Betty Bowers Marriott, 1999, Environmental Impact Assessment, McGraw Hill

Canadian International Development Agency, Environmental Assessment and Compliance Unit, 2004, Environmental Impact Assessment

GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme on Building PEMSEA,2004,Southeastern Coast of Bali Initial Risk Assessment, Bali National ICM Demonstration Site

GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme on Building PEMSEA,2002, Coastal Strategy for the Southeastern Coast of Bali

Government of the Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Public Works Directorate General of Water Resource Developmnet, 1998, Bali Beach Conservation Project, Final Report

Melcaft & Eddy, 2003,Wastewater Engineering, Fourth Edition,MacGraw Hill Companies Inc.

Stanley E Manahan,1994, Environmental Chemistry, Sixth Edition,Lewis Publishers

United Nations Environment Program, 2001, Monitoring Industrial Emmision and Wastes, A Manual


[i1]This summary table does not accurately reflect the monitoring results as presented in Chapter III. Please refer to revisions incorporated in the table. Alternatively, the reporting could be based on risks (using RQs). This could standardize the reporting of monitoring results and facilitate the comparison with the risk assessment (i.e., to determine changes in levels of risk).

[i2]What is the basis for the qualitative descriptions of beach quality? Sanur Beach and Tanjung Benoa were described as good beaches despite the exceedance of standards for coliform, etc., while Nusa Dua was described as a very good beach despite the exceedance of standards for nutrients. Should this be based on the relative conditions of the beach areas monitored or on the achievement of specific management and technical criteria?

[i3]Based on the results, DO is not a parameter of concern in Sanur.

[i4]The discussion and the figures should be focused on the identified parameters of concern including pathogens and BOD (no discussion). Figures 4.12 to 4.14 are not the parameters of concern in the area.

[i5]DO is not a parameter of concern in Serangan Island. DO values should really be above the standard, NOT BELOW the standard.

[i6]This is true if the assessment is based on the national standard (1,000 MPN/100ml). If assessment is based on the Bali standard (nil), al sites will exceed the standard. Seawater in this area also exceeds the standards for nitrite, nitrate and phosphate in all stations, fecal coliform in almost all stations, and BOB & COD in station 1

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar